A surgical navigation system is a medical team based on the principle of high-accuracy stereoscopic vision, and has now become an essential team for the development of computer-assisted surgery, as they are responsible for guiding the surgeon's movements during surgery, showing the real-time position of each instrument and anatomical structure. This device enables the use of digital images during surgical procedures, providing surgeons with the opportunity to plan before surgery and to use the instruments effectively during surgery.
The technologies used in such systems may be mechanical, electromagnetic or optical. The most common are optical devices, and these are classified as passive or active. In the former, cameras can locate specific markers such as reflective targets, particular shapes or colors, while active systems can locate LEDs.